Study on the unexplainable medical diagnosis kleptomania

From a young era, we are taught to play nice, share with others, and not consider possessions that don’t belong to ourselves. As we get older, we learn self-control, generating our keep, and defend our valuables from others. However, for some the moralistic guidelines, dread, embarrassment and guilt are not enough to avoid stealing from occurring daily.

The news is constantly broadcasting crimes of shoplifting, burglary, larceny, identify theft, robbery, and actually plagiarism. These acts are deliberate, whether spontaneous or prepared, that involve spending something for personal or profit (Taylor, Kelly, Valescu, Reynolds, Sherman, & German, 2001). Although these crimes are easily understood and rather prevalent, a different type of stealing, kleptomania, presents an entirely different perspective.

Some individuals utilize the conditions kleptomania and shoplifting synonymously. The National Association of Shoplifting Prevention found that one in every eleven adult have got shoplifted at least once in their lifetime. In addition they found that more than thirteen billion dollars worthy of of goods are stolen from vendors in the usa every year (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Roughly 0-8% of most shoplifters own kleptomania (Dannon, 2002). Although they share common qualities, kleptomania is a much more relentless and atypical disorder.

Around for over two centuries, kleptomania is a distinct psychiatric disorder yet it remains to be poorly understood and unrecognizable to many clinicians. It is thought to affect just .06 percent of the populace. Although little is known concerning this disorder, kleptomania is a serious disorder, which in turn causes functional impairment. It really is extremely correlated with psychiatric hospitalizations and suicidal ideations (Grant & Kim, 2003).

Similar to other styles of stealing, kleptomania is an impulse control disorder. People with this mental disorder cannot resist urges to activate in activities that may be bad for themselves or others. The manifestation of kleptomania may appear across all age groups, however the mean onset is two decades old (Dannon, 2002). It is different from other types of stealing for the reason that these individuals do not steal for personal or money, but instead for leisure (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006).

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, "Kleptomania may be the recurrent failure to withstand impulses to steal products despite the fact that the items aren’t necessary for personal use or for their value. To be diagnosed the following five diagnostic criteria must be met: a rising tension immediately prior to the theft, pleasure or comfort upon committing the theft, the theft is not motivated by anger or vengeance, or the effect of a delusion or hallucination, and the tendencies isn’t better accounted for by a conduct disorder, manic instance, or antisocial persona disorder. The things are stolen even though they are usually of little value to the individual, who could possess afforded to cover them and frequently throws them away or discards them (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)."

Kleptomania is thought to affect 2-3 times more women and be related to menstruation and premenstration periods (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). It commonly coexists with depression, nervousness, mood, chemical substance dependency, and ingesting disorders. Kleptomania may also coexist with major major depression, panic attacks, social phobia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, drug abuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006).

Kleptomania is associated with continual failed attempts to stop stealing. It can be specific to certain objects or settings. It is just a solo take action, where no collaboration is performed with others. The individual may steal from open public places, retailers, supermarkets, or from relatives and buddies members. The items they steal typically have no value to them. They often secretly

donate, give away, or return the items they steal (Kleptomania, 2009).

Alike to other research, researchers Grant and Kim discovered that most people with kleptomania steal household goods accompanied by groceries. Ironically, minimal likely items they will be to steal are books and music. The majority of participants reported anxiety and stress as being the reason behind their stealing and sights and sounds as their least likely trigger. The large majority of they claimed they resist the desire of stealing by thinking about getting caught. Minimal amount of participants admitted that browsing when stores are occupied prevents them from resisting their urges to steal (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Although little is known about the etiology of kleptomania, various researchers believe it includes a genetic component that could be transmitted among family members (Grant & Kim, 2002). Some researchers believe it can be linked to the merchandise of serotonin in the brain (Dannon, 2002). Others believe the onset is associated with head trauma, frontal lobe damage, dementia, and hypoglycemia (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). Symptoms of kleptomania sometimes originate between late adolescence and early on adulthood. In rare cases, it can begin as early as childhood or as overdue as adulthood (Kleptomania, 2009).

Risk factors play a significant part in the progression of kleptomania. Individuals that contain blood relatives with kleptomania, mood disorders, addictions, obsessive compulsive disorder, or excessive lifestyle stressors are at a substantial risk for producing kleptomania (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). The preceding research provide added support.

Grant and Kim performed a study in 2002 to analyze the similarities of the onset and family history of kleptomania. Grant discovered that the participants reported the average onset of sixteen years. However, most individuals were not diagnosed with their disorder until roughly six years from starting point and symptoms were found to previous twenty-one years normally. The study discovered that the just predictor of growing kleptomania in a single year of onset was a family background of prior psychiatric condition. Nevertheless, little is well known about the biological aspect of kleptomania; so, it warrants further analysis (Grant & Kim, 2002).

A second study predicated on gender related variations in individuals looking for treatment for kleptomania offers you further analysis. The study found that men and women diagnosed with kleptomania have relatively severe symptoms and functional impairments. In fact, individuals with kleptomania had 3 x greater symptoms than those reported in pathological gambling, twice of these found in people with post traumatic pressure disorder, and one . 5 times those reported in substance abuse disorders. The intensity of the symptoms were comparable to those who are identified as having obsessive compulsive disorder and important depressive disorders (Grant & Potenza, 2008).

The study went on to find that women of all ages with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1%), commence shoplifting at a down the road age (20.9 years outdated), contain comorbid disorders of major depression (55.6%), steal house-hold products from stores (60.35), and hoard products they stole (50%). Fewer males were found to become wedded (25.9%), and their starting point of stealing occurred previous (14 years old). Males reported having more comorbid impulse-control disorders (51.9%), stealing from electronic-goods stores (48.1%), and giving items away (40.7%). Lastly, ladies rated the view of something (38.2%) as their result in for stealing, while males rated anxiety/stress (37.0%) as their top rated motive for stealing. The lowest rated trigger for men and women was low self-esteem (Grant & Potenza, 2008).

A third analysis, which centered on one’s perception of symptoms, provides even more investigation on the features of kleptomania. There is no question an individual with kleptomania experiences urges to steal and shame thereafter. However, this analysis found a correlation between your intensity of symptoms and perceived strain. The more powerful and plentiful the symptoms are, the even more kleptomaniacs’ are to see their lives as erratic and unmanageable. The sooner treatment emerges to individuals with kleptomania, the fewer their perceived strain will be. Because of reducing their perceived tension, they will reduce using the stress in their lives and live healthier lifestyles (Grant, Kim & Grosz, 2003).

Although only .06 percent of the population is reported to include kleptomania, it is thought to be under reported (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006; Kohn, 2006). Grant performed a report that recognized rates as huge at 7.8 percent (Grant & Kim, 2002). Individuals with kleptomania experience a plethora of symptoms that are exceptional to themselves. After recognizing the symptoms, people with kleptomania should decide why they are participating in these high risk behaviors.

Why individuals steal is based on a range of objectives and motives. Young children steal things because they lack an understanding. They cannot comprehend that products cost money and to be able to receive items they have to pay for them. Because they approach school age, children are taught correct versus wrong and they should not take things that usually do not participate in themselves. As kids approach adolescents, they should grasp they cannot take stuff without asking authorization or paying for the items. At the point of adolescents and adulthood, people know stealing is wrong, yet many still take part in this criminal behavior. Peer pressure, modeling, financial difficulties, a lack of self-control, trying to look and feel a void, suppress additional tribulations or defiance could all be capabilities of stealing (Tynan, 2008)

The function of kleptomania is exclusive from all other types of stealing. Individuals with this disorder steal, certainly not for personal or monetary gain, but instead for the thrill. These individuals are typically financially well away and see no benefit in the things they are taking (Kleptomania, 2009).

Self-report measures can be quite a useful technique to recognize the antecedents and effects of the patterns and the correlations with additional disorders. The Beck Depressive disorder Inventory-II and the Beck Anxiousness Inventory might help identify the harshness of every co-morbid disorder. Clinical discussions and evaluations regarding the Abstinence Violation Effect could also help in identifying a person’s perception of the increased loss of control over their behaviors (Kohn, 2006).

Even though these individual steal for the excitement, they experience many legal repercussions (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Alike to stealing, kleptomaniacs know stealing is wrong and senseless. They usually do not look at the repercussions of the criminal offense before committing it unless there happen to be immediate likelihood of arrest. Before the initial action they feel stress and fear being apprehended. Through the crime, they come to feel gratitude and pleasure. Following a crime they experience emotions of guilt, shame, and depression (Kleptomania, 2009). The next studies offer more support.

Out of the one hundred and one parents with kleptomania studied, 74% reported being stopped by store security on at least one celebration how to write an academic paper fast and successfully, 69% reported becoming arrested, 37% reported being arrested but not convicted, and 21% of the individuals reported getting convicted with incarceration after their conviction. The rest of the 27% of the participants reported these were never stopped by store security or arrested (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). The outcomes indicate the kleptomania is normally a pathological tendencies that results in significant legal repercussions, personal distress, and functional impairment (Grant, Kim, McCabe, 2006).

A second study found that 64%-87% of individuals with kleptomania have been arrested at some time in their life. It went on to mention that individuals who have kleptomania have frequently been arrested multiple occasions, with some reporting over 10 life span arrest. They discovered that 15-23% of individuals seeking treatment have put in time in jail therefore of shoplifting (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Since arrest and incarceration requires an emotional toll on they, clinicians have to place a significant emphasis on behavioral and emotional outcomes (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Shoplifting most commonly begins in overdue adolescence or early on adulthood, and for a lot of people with kleptomania, it would appear that it may take several years to meet the DSM-IV requirements for kleptomania (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Consequently, early recognition and avoidance efforts for individuals who are captured shoplifting may avoid the development of kleptomania.

Given that those who have kleptomania rarely seek

medical assistantance, this disorder is normally difficult to diagnose. Physical and mental evaluations are performed to ensure there is nothing physically wrong with the individual triggering the triggering of symptoms. Preliminary psychological evaluations may detect signs and symptoms of poor parenting, conflicts in romantic relationships, or acute stressors (Kleptomania, 2009). It really is difficult for medical doctors to diagnose kleptomania because these individuals may have patterns of stealing limited to specific objects and/or occurrences. When kleptomania is definitely diagnosed it commonly occurs when persons seek treatment for additional disorders such as: depression, bulimia, mental instability, or dysphoria (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Since there is absolutely no specific test to determine if a person has kleptomania or not really, a set of questions and circumstances are implemented to judge the responses of the average person. First, the individual would be asked inquiries regarding their health background to see if indeed they have any other analysis. Next their family history, consumption of drugs and alcohol, and current medications will be evaluated. Subsequently, they might be asked more personal questions. Common issues asked identify at what era the first connection with stealing occurred, how often the feelings occur, have they ever before been caught, what types of products do they steal, carry out they need these things, who do they steal from, and what do they do with the items they steal. Additional questions may revolve around the triggers that urge them to steal and how stealing affects the areas of their lifestyle (Kleptomania, 2009).

After a clinician assesses the physical and mental analysis and clinical interview, they would do a comparison of their client’s responses to that of the DSM-IV. As previously mentioned, to become diagnosed with kleptomania, a person must possess the next symptoms: an inability to resist urges to steal items that are not needed for personal or money, the thoughts of increased tension leading up to a meeting, the feelings of comfort and gratification proceeding the theft, not committed because of revenge or anger, certainly not performed during hallucinations or delusions, and not linked to manic episodes, bipolar disorder, or other mental wellbeing disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In order to be diagnosed as having kleptomania, the average person must meet all of the criteria.

Currently, psychiatrists are using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) to recognize individuals with kleptomania. It is just a widely used diagnostic instrument, but it lacks specific assessments to effectively identify all instances of kleptomania. Therefore, Grant, Kim, and McCabe created a comparable Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K). Throughout their study, 112 people with multiple disorders, trying to find psychiatric outpatient therapy, were administered the interview. The SCI-K took normally twenty minutes to manage and was very well received by all the participants. As a result, the Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania was determined to have excellent reliability and validity in diagnosing kleptomania in these individuals. Although this study has to be replicated with a larger and more diverse population, it shows much guarantee (Grant, Kim, and McCabe, 2006). Based on the results of the study and future research to arrive, kleptomania may one day be easier to distinguish and treat.

Once the disorder can be evaluated and verified by a clinician, treatment and coping methods are applied. Although treatment is needed for individuals with kleptomania, most fail to obtain treatment and the pharmacological treatment is limited due to the lack of controlled trials (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). As a result, psychiatrists have little scientific data which to base their recommendations.

Although there are few studies and limited research, there are a plethora of medicines and therapies used to help individuals with mental health disorders. The five virtually all common types of prescription drugs are antidepressants, feeling stabilizers, benzodiazepines, anti-seizure, and addiction medication.

Antidepressants are the most typical kind of medication used to take care of kleptomania (Kleptomania, 2009; Dannon, 2002; Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). They contain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that help to decrease impulses to steal. These medications have also been found to effectively treat additional impulse control disorders such as trichotillomania, pathological gambling, binge-eating, and compulsive shopping for (Dannon, 2002). Antidepressant medicines consist of: fluoxetine, fluoxamine, paroxetine, naltrexone and (Kleptomania, 2009).

Fluoxetine features been cited by many studies as being the most appropriate to take care of the symptoms connected with kleptomania. Fluvoxamine was the second most successful medication in treating symptoms associated with impulse-control disorders when psychodynamic and remedy failed. When found in combination with other medicines for an average of 90 days, paroxetine was found good in lowering urges to steal. Lastly, naltrexone, the most recent medication tested, was found to lessen involved symptoms of kleptomania when found in mixture with paroxetine (Dannon, 2002).

Mood stabilizers will be the second kind of medication that may be useful in dealing with kleptomania. The roles of these medications are to even out mood to ensure that stealing isn’t triggered. The most frequent mood stabilizer used to take care of kleptomania is usually lithium (Kleptomaniam 2009).

Following, Benzodiazepines are being used to regulate the central nervous system. Their effectiveness varies, but caution has to be taken for these medications can be very habit forming if taken in high doses or over a long period of time. These tranquilizer type medications involve clonazepam and alprazolam (Kleptomania, 2009).

The fourth group of medication used to treat kleptomania is anti-seizure prescription drugs. This type of medication is not only used to treat seizures, but are also found to benefit certain mental overall health disorders. Anti-seizure medications consist of topiramate and valproic acid (Kleptomania, 2009).

Lastly, addiction medications are used to reduce the symptoms associated with kleptomania. These medication block parts of the brain that feels urges to steal and satisfaction when stealing (Kleptomania, 2009). All the previous listed medications are possible procedures for kleptomania, but shouldn’t be used alone.

Grant and Kim conducted a study to check this theory. They discovered that 60% of the people in their study attemptedto get help at some point in their life for kleptomania. Since kleptomania can be tough to diagnose, physicians prescribed anxiety and depression medications to take care of the symptoms these people demonstrated. Of the medications indicated, no person felt a decrease in their kleptomania urges and symptoms. This analysis supports the previous claim, stating that medicine alone isn’t proven to lessen the symptoms of

kleptomania (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Therapy should be found in accompaniment of medication to alleviate symptoms connected with kleptomania. The route of therapy for kleptomania typically revolves around impulse control and accompanying mental disorders. However, there exists a discrepancy between which therapies are used most regularly and which are most appropriate. Therapies typically applied are cognitive behavioral remedy and psychoanalytic therapies such as covert sensitization, aversion remedy, and systematic desensitization. Regarding to a study by Antonuccio, Burn off, and Danton, cognitive-behavioral interventions will be the most plausible and successful treatment for kleptomania and have the least number of unwanted effects (Antonuccio, Burns, & Danton, 2002). The Mayo Clinic concurs mentioning that cognitive behavioral therapy has shown much victory in relieving the symptoms related to kleptomania. Furthermore, they mention that cognitive behavioral therapy helps people with kleptomania identify unhealthy mental poison and behaviors and substitute them with healthy and balanced positive associations (Kleptomania, 2009).

According to another research executed by Dannon, he declares that cognitive-behavioral therapy has largely replaced psychoanalytic and dynamic techniques (Dannon, 2002). He discovered that covert sensitization, aversion therapy, and systematic desensitization have got proven beneficial for people with kleptomania. Covert sensitization encourages the given individual to picture themselves stealing and then being caught stealing. Aversion remedy encourages the individuals to activate in painful techniques to replace their urges of stealing. Systematic desensitization promotes relaxation techniques to control the urge to steal (Kleptomania, 2009).

Aside from pharmacological, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoanalytic therapies, the Mayo Clinic offers further coping and support approaches. Individuals with kleptomania have to educate themselves on the factors, treatment, and triggers of kleptomania and stick to their treatment solution. The more specific they are in pursuing their medication guidelines and attending their therapeutic periods, the better off they’ll be at fighting this disorder. They need to discover their triggers and discover appropriate ways to manage their urges. Individuals with kleptomania could benefit from relaxation and stress control techniques. Meditation and yoga may help them focus their energy in a positive method. Ultimately, they have to stay focused on their goal (Kleptomania, 2009). Kleptomania is a serious disorder and with it comes various drawbacks. If everything else fails, there are support groups predicated on twelve-step programs. Being component of a group and understand "You are not alone" has been proven to benefit many individuals with mental disorders (Kleptomania, 2009).

Similar to numerous impulse-control disorders, it is not uncommon for individuals with kleptomania to relapse. It is essential that individuals carefully follow their treatment ideas. If they experience triggers and urges to steal, they have to contact their mental wellness provider, a reputable support group, or if on probation, allow their probation officer find out (Kleptomania, 2009).

The prognosis for kleptomania is certainly fair. The very best preventative measure can be correcting acts of

stealing in childhood. When parents first recognize the youngster is stealing, they should go over and clarify why stealing is incorrect. As children begin to understand why stealing is wrong, they must be taught ownership and appropriate ways of getting things without taking them. By modeling appropriate behaviors and praising kids for their honest behavior, stealing could possibly be corrected before it turns into mind-boggling and unmanageable (Zolten & Long, 2006).

Research has found that amongst shoplifters, individuals who experience constant, universal feelings of embarrassment and guilt will continue stealing. People who experience situation-specific thoughts of humiliation are more likely to discontinue their behaviors associated with stealing (Kohn, 2006).

Early recognition and treatment are the best defenses to help symptoms of kleptomania turn into manageable (Kleptomania, 2009). If still left untreated, kleptomania can bring about relentless emotional, legal, and monetary complications (Kleptomania, 2009). Individuals may live in continuous guilt and humiliation. As a result of this disorder, persons can encounter arrest, imprisonment, depression, alcohol and substance abuse, eating disorders, nervousness, compulsive gambling or browsing, suicidal ideations, and interpersonal isolation. The Mayo Clinic suggests that, "A healthy upbringing, positive interactions, and a manageable approach to handle acute stress may reduce the prevalence of kleptomania and coexisting disorders" (Kleptomania, 2009).

Kleptomania ‘s been around for nearly two decades, but still little is known about the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of such a serious mental disorder. For a long time many clinicians think that the onset of kleptomania was generally due to a family group history, the presence of other psychological disorder or unmanageable lifestyle stressors. Clinicians continually used a widely respectable diagnostic application, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID), to recognize symptoms linked to kleptomania. Once they could actually recognize associated symptoms, they perpetually recommend medication to lessen and relieve the symptoms.

With the developments in technology and vast psychological studies, the causes, medical diagnosis, and treatment of kleptomania have been questioned. A change in study has drifted from the traditional genetic features and directed their concentrate on head injuries and human brain pathological as being possible creating of kleptomania. Experts Grant, Kim, and

McCabe opened doorways to a far more effective and efficient diagnostic program doubting the reliability and practicality of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Study after review, found the fewer side effects and the considerably more manageable approach connected with cognitive behavioral therapy has result in greater success in treating symptoms related to kleptomania. The point being, more research and further investigation into the etiology, biology, diagnostic measures and treatment can be warranted. Hopefully in the years to come, kleptomania will no longer be referred to as the unexplainable disorder, but instead one that has answers.

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